Honestly… you’re best off bringing this up with your instructor at the start of the next event and then telling him/her what you’re doing as you’re doing it.
It’s just about impossible from your description, especially since it was your first time, to really understand what you’re asking.
A lot of it is going to come down to how comfortable you are with the things that can go wrong. If you can counter-steer and chase the car to the outside of the track, then if you’re only a bit faster than you’d like to be I’d just go for it and see if it sticks. On the regular line you’ve got room to chase it out a bit and just not accelerate after the apex.
If you’re not comfortable with that and are more than likely going to spin if it doesn’t stick, then I’d just keep braking harder in a straight line and then just go around the outside of the turn. Since you’ve already screwed it up, it doesn’t matter any more at that point so just get through it safely and set up for the next one.
Without knowing you and your comfort level though, no amount of Internet advice is going to benefit you. Since you’re new, you’ve got a whole lot to learn from your instructors before you can start asking the Internet for advice on the smaller nuances.
If you’re asking about what to do when approaching the braking zone going faster because you’ve done the previous turn much better, then it’s a bit of both when it comes to braking sooner or harder. Again, as a beginner, you’re almost certainly not braking as hard as you could be so you’ve got both options available. Just finish your braking before you turn in. Leave trail braking for when you get into the Yellow group and are trying out more advanced stuff. It’s your instructor that’s going to have the best advice though, as they see exactly what you’re doing in the car.
As you mentioned, you very quickly discover that you’re not as good a driver as you always thought you were. The instructors will change that. 🙂